1.2 - Ethics and the Pursuit of a Law Enforcement Career
1.3 - As Employees in Law Enforcement Agencies
1.4 - References
1.5 - Glossary
2.1 - Major Ethical Systems
2.2 - Utilitarian Ethics
2.3 - Deontology
2.4 - Virtue Ethics
2.5 - Ethics of Care
2.6 - Egoism
2.7 - Religion or Divine Command Theory
2.8 - Natural Law
2.9 - Social Contract Theory
2.10 - Rawls’ Theory of Justice
2.11 - Moral Relativism
2.12 - References
2.13 - Glossary
3.Ethical Dilemmas and the Process of Effective Resolution
3.1 - Ethical Dilemmas
3.2 - Values
3.3 - Solving Ethical Dilemmas
3.4 - References
4.Key Ethical Issues within Law Enforcement
4.1 - Ethical Issues
4.2 - The Ethics of Power and Authority
4.3 - The Milgram Experiment
4.4 - Person, Gender, and Cultural Differences in Conformity
4.5 - Ethical Issues during an Investigation
4.6 - Gratuities
4.7 - References
4.8 - Glossary
5.Accountability and Investigation
5.1 - Autonomy and Accountability
5.2 - British Columbia's Police Act
5.3 - The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act
5.4 - Investigation Models
5.5 - Independent Investigations Office
5.6 - References
6.1 - Noble Cause Corruption
6.2 - Policing Public Demonstrations and Crowd Control
6.3 - Sex Offender Notification Laws
6.4 - Ethics of Private Policing
6.5 - References
6.6 - Glossary
7.Discretion, Supervision, and Leadership
7.1 - The Ethics Surrounding Discretion
7.2 - Discretion and Supervision
7.3 - Selective Enforcement
7.4 - Loyalty
7.5 - Ethical Leadership
7.6 - Transactional and Transformational Leadership
7.7 - References
7.8 - Glossary
8.The Culture of Law Enforcement
8.1 - Police Subculture
8.2 - Socialization of Police
8.3 - Skepticism and Cynicism
8.4 - Moral Culpability versus Legal Culpability
8.5 - References
8.6 - Glossary
9.1 - Appendix. The British Columbia Police Code of Ethics
9.2 - About the Authors
Ethics in Law Enforcement
STEVE MCCARTNEY AND RICK PARENT
Unless otherwise noted, this book is released under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License also known as a CC-BY license. This means you are free to copy, redistribute, modify or adapt this book. Under this license, anyone who redistributes or modifies this textbook, in whole or in part, can do so for free providing they properly attribute the book as follows:
The police are essential to democracy. By ensuring that no person is above the law, the police protect citizens from victimization. Through the enforcement of the law, police ensure that no individual or group violently asserts its will over public order.1
Debate the major arguments concerning the importance of ethics in law enforcement.
Distinguish the issues relating to morals, ethics, values, ethical codes, ethical standards, and ethical dilemmas.
Contrast individual and organizational values and responsibilities.
Analyze an ethical dilemma.
Contrast issues that include decision making, discretion, and the structure of accountability.
Differentiate between organizational and individual misconduct and issues related to consequences and liability.
Using critical thinking, evaluate the moral issues related to a course of action including the resolution of an ethical dilemma.
In this book, you will examine the moral and ethical issues that exist within law enforcement. This book will also familiarize you with the basic history, principles, and theories of ethics. These concepts will then be applied to the major components of the criminal justice system: policing, the courts, and corrections. Discussion will focus on personal values, individual responsibility, decision making, discretion, and the structure of accountability. Specific topics covered will include core values, codes of conduct, ethical dilemmas, organizational consequences, liability, and the importance of critical thinking. By the end of this book, you will be able to distinguish and critically debate contemporary ethical issues in law enforcement.
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Open textbooks are open educational resources (OER); they are instructional resources created and shared in ways so that more people have access to them. This is a different model than traditionally copyrighted materials. OER are defined as teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others (Hewlett Foundation). Our open textbooks are openly licensed using a Creative Commons license, and are offered in various e-book formats free of charge, or as printed books that are available at cost. For more information about this project, please contact email@example.com. If you are an instructor who is using this book for a course, please let us know.
Caldero, M. and Crank, J. (2004) Police Ethics: The Corruption of Noble Cause, Second edition. Mathew Bender and Company.
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