Constitutional Law Cases: The Structure of Government
first Edition

Constitutional Law Cases: The Structure of Government

by Ziyad Motala

Whenever we ask the question whether something is constitutional, we look to decisions of the courts particularly the United States Supreme Court. This body of case law provides us with an understanding on the meaning of the Constitution. It is fair to say that judicial review is the foundation of constitutional law. This case book limits the excerpts to focus primarily on Supreme Court decisions that interpret and explain the distribution of power between the national government and the states and between the executive and congress. The excerpts from the cases are heavily abbreviated to allow the reader to focus on the essence of the court's decision. This case book is suited to a course on the structure of government.

Ziyad Motala is a Professor of law at Howard University School of Law. He served as an Honorary Professor of Law at the University Of Western Cape School Of Law in South Africa. Prior to his teaching at Howard, he also taught at Northwestern Law School as an adjunct law professor and a visiting assistant professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law. Motala is a native of Durban, South Africa, and was active in the struggle for liberation in South Africa. He received his B.A. and LL.B. degrees from the University of Natal (South Africa). He has an LL.M. and an SJ.D degree from Northwestern University in Chicago. He is an authority on international law, constitutional law, and comparative law.  He served for eight years as the Director of the Graduate Studies Program at Howard University School of Law and currently serves as the Director of the Howard South Africa Summer Abroad Program, which he initiated.  Motala is the co-author of Constitutional Law Analysis and Cases with Cyril Ramaphosa the current President of the Republic of South Africa. He has also authored Constitutional Options For a Democratic South Africa: a Comparative Perspective. He has co-edited, The Protection of Human Rights in African Criminal Proceedings with M.C. Bassiouni. He is the author of over seventy law review/journal, op-ed pieces or books. He has worked on projects pertaining to legal reform and administration of justice in various parts of the world.

Copyright held by Ziyad Motala. All rights reserved. 2019

Introduction.
Introduction.1 - Acknowledgments
Introduction.2 - Preface
Introduction.3 - The Constitution of the United States
Chapter One. The Role of the Supreme Court in the Constitution
1.1 - The Role of the Supreme Court and the Justification for Judicial Review
1.1.1 - Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803)
1.2 - Methods of Interpretation
1.2.1 - Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)
1.2.2 - McCulloch v. State of Maryland, 17 U.S. 316 (1819)
1.3 - Appellate Review by the United States Supreme Court
1.3.1 - Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee, 14 U.S. 304 (1816)
1.4 - Political Controls Over the Courts
1.4.1 - Ex parte McCardle, 74 U.S. 506 (1869)
1.5 - Justiciability Standards
1.5.1 - ADVISORY OPINIONS
1.5.2 - STANDING
1.5.3 - POLITICAL QUESTION DOCTRINE
1.5.4 - RIPENESS
1.5.5 - MOOTNESS
Chapter Two. National Power vs State Power: The Power of Congress
2.1 - The Early Approach to Federalism under the Marshall Court
2.1.1 - Gibbons v. Ogden, 22 U.S. 1 (1824)
2.2 - Contraction of the Commerce Clause
2.2.1 - United States v. E.C. Knight Co., 156 U.S. 1 (1895)
2.2.2 - Houston E. & W. Tex. Ry. Co. v. United States, 234 U.S. 342 (1914)
2.2.3 - Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 (1918)
2.3 - The New Deal Crisis
2.3.1 - A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935)
2.3.2 - Carter v. Carter Coal Co., 298 U.S. 238 (1936)
2.3.3 - N.L.R.B. v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1 (1937)
2.3.4 - Wickard v. Filburn, 317 U.S. 111 (1942)
2.3.5 - United States v. Darby, 312 U.S. 100 (1941)
2.4 - Post New-Deal cases
2.4.1 - Heart of Atlanta Motel, Inc. v. United States, 379 U.S. 241 (1964)
2.4.2 - Katzenbach v. McClung, 379 U.S. 294 (1964)
2.5 - Non-economic activity and effects on commerce
2.5.1 - Perez v. United States, 402 U.S. 146, (1971)
2.5.2 - United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995)
2.5.3 - United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000)
2.5.4 - National Fed. of Ind. Bus. v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. 519 (2012)
2.6 - The Tenth Amendment as a Federalism Based Limitation
2.6.1 - FEDERAL GOVERNMENT REGULATING A STATE
2.6.2 - FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MAKING THE STATE AN INSTRUMENT OF FEDERAL REGULATION
2.7 - The Taxing Power
2.7.1 - United States v. Doremus, 249 U.S. 86, (1919)
2.7.2 - Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. (U.S. Reports Title: Child Labor Tax Case), 259 U.S. 20, (1922)
2.7.3 - National Fed. of Ind. Bus. v. Sebelius, 132 S. Ct. 2566 (2012)
2.8 - The Spending Power.
2.8.1 - United States v. Butler, 297 U.S. 1 (1936)
2.8.2 - Steward Machine Co. v. Davis, 301 U.S. 548 (1937)
2.8.3 - South Dakota v. Dole, 483 U.S. 203 (1987)
2.8.4 - National Fed. of Ind. Bus. v. Sebelius, 132 S. Ct. 2566 (2012)
2.9 - The 14th Amendment as an Enlargement of Congresses’ Power
2.9.1 - Katzenbach v. Morgan, 384 U.S. 641 (1966)
2.9.2 - City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997)
2.10 - The Eleventh Amendment and Sovereign Immunity
2.10.1 - Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. 419, 1 L. Ed. 440 (1793)
2.10.2 - Hans v. Louisiana, 134 U.S. 1 (1890)
2.10.3 - Alden v. Maine, 527 U.S. 706 (1999)
2.10.4 - Kimel v. Fla. Bd. of Regents, 528 U.S. 62 (2000)
2.10.5 - Board of Trustees v. Garrett, 531 U.S. 356 (2001)
2.10.6 - Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721 (2003)
2.10.7 - Coleman v. Court of Appeals of Maryland, 566 U.S. 30 (2012)
2.10.8 - Tennessee v. Lane, 541 U.S. 509 (2004)
2.10.9 - United States v. Georgia, 546 U.S. 151 (2006)
2.11 - The Treaty Power
2.11.1 - Missouri v. Holland, 252 U.S. 416 (1920)
2.11.2 - Medellin v. Texas, 552 U.S. 491 (2008)
Chapter Three. The Extent To Which States Can Regulate Commerce
3.1 - Introduction: Dormant Commerce Clause: State Regulation of Interstate Commerce the early years
3.1.1 - FACIAL DISCRIMINATION
3.1.2 - EFFECTS ON INTERSTATE COMMERCE
3.1.3 - UNDUE BURDEN ON INTERSTATE COMMERCE
3.2 - Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV
3.2.1 - United Building and Construction Trades Council v. City of Camden, 465 U.S. 208 (1984)
3.3 - Preemption
3.3.1 - Pacific Gas & Electric v. State Energy Resources, 461 U.S. 190 (1983)
Chapter Four. Executive Power
4.1 - Law making vs law enforcement
4.1.1 - Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952)
4.2 - Foreign Affairs
4.2.1 - United States v. Curtiss-Wright Corp., 299 U.S. 304 (1936)
4.2.2 - Dames & Moore v. Regan, 453 U.S. 654, 659–91 (1981)
4.2.3 - Am. Ins. Ass'n v. Garamendi, 539 U.S. 396, (2003)
4.3 - The Allocation of War Making Authority
4.3.1 - Dellums v. Bush, 752 F. Supp. 1141 (D.D.C. 1990)
4.3.2 - ACTIONS BY THE CONGRESS
4.3.3 - ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE EXECUTIVE
4.4 - Domestic Affairs
4.4.1 - PRESIDENTIAL IMMUNITY
4.4.2 - EXECUTIVE POWER AND THE EVOLVING CONCEPTION OF SEPARATION OF POWERS
Chapter Five. The Contracts Clause
5.1 - Manigault v. Springs, 199 U.S. 473 (1905)
5.2 - Home Building & Loan Assoc. v. Blaisdell, 290 U.S. 398 (1934)
5.3 - United States Trust Co. v. New Jersey, 431 U.S. 1 (1977)
Chapter Six. The Takings Clause
6.1 - Hawaii Housing Authority v. Midkiff, 467 U.S. 229 (1984)
6.2 - Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 469 (2005)
6.3 - Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393 (1922)
6.4 - Keystone Bituminous Coal v. DeBenedictis, 480 U.S. 470 (1987)
6.5 - Miller v. Schoene, 276 U.S. 272 (1928)
6.6 - Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City, 438 U.S. 104 (1978)
6.7 - Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corp., 458 U.S. 419 (1982)
6.8 - FCC v. Florida Power Corp., 480 U.S. 245 (1987)
6.9 - Pruneyard Shopping Ctr. v. Robins, 447 U.S. 74 (1980)
6.10 - Hodel v. Irving, 481 U.S. 704 (1987)
6.11 - Andrus v. Allard, 444 U.S. 51 (1979)
6.12 - Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 U.S. 365 (1926)
6.13 - Kaiser Aetna v. United States, 444 U.S. 164 (1979)
6.14 - Nollan v. California Coastal Comm’n, 483 U.S. 825 (1987)
6.15 - Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003 (1992)
6.16 - Tahoe-Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, 535 U.S. 302 (2002)
6.17 - Palazzolo v. Rhode Island, 533 U.S. 606 (2001)
Chapter Seven. Implied Fundamental Rights
7.1 - The Privileges and Immunities Clause of the 14th Amendment
7.1.1 - The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 36 (1873)
7.2 - The Incorporation Controversy
7.2.1 - Barron v. Mayor & City Council of Baltimore, 32 U.S. 243 (1833)
7.2.2 - Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319 (1937)
7.2.3 - Duncan v. Louisiana, 391 U.S. 145 (1968)
7.2.4 - Mcdonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 742 (2010)
7.3 - Substantive Due Process Fundamental Rights in the Economic Realm
7.3.1 - Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1905)
7.3.2 - Muller v. Oregon, 208 U.S. 412 (1908)
7.3.3 - Adkins v. Children’s Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923)
7.3.4 - Nebbia v. New York, 291 U.S. 502 (1934)
7.3.5 - West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, 300 U.S. 379 (1937)
7.3.6 - Williamson v. Lee Optical of Oklahoma, 348 U.S. 483 (1955)
7.3.7 - United States v. Carolene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144 (1938)
7.4 - Modern Substantive Due Process Fundamental Rights
7.4.1 - Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965)